1433: The Year China Discovered Italy:
Kick-starting the Renaissance

Captain P. J. Rivers
 FRGS FNI MRIN ACII ACI Arb, Master Mariner

1457_Mapamundi de ToscanelliRather modestly, for a change, Gavin declared, “As will be seen - neither I nor the 1421 Team has made any original contribution”. This disclaimer ignores completely the spin that Gavin’s lively imagination has contributed to an inordinate interpretation of an obscure passage in a letter of Toscanelli. More

 1434 - No Way - No Canal
Captain P. J. Rivers
 FRGS FNI MRIN ACII ACI Arb, Master Mariner

suez2Many members of the community of scholars who specialize in the history of cartography have criticized this text (1421) severely. This lecture reviews some of the reasons why Menzies interpretation of cartographic history should not be trusted. More

The Suez Canal and the Passage of Zheng He’s fleet on its way to Italy in 1434
Dr. Stephen Davies, Museum Director,
Hong Kong Maritime Museum

SuezThere is absolutely no solid evidence that stands up to scrutiny that a large fleet of Chinese vessels visited Italy in the first half of the 15th century. No record mentions it – yet this was a time when any wonder was eagerly commented on and recorded. But let’s assume everyone was having a blind month, or that assiduous traducers of the record of the kind beloved by conspiracy theorists have subsequently – and unbelievably thoroughly – trashed the entire, Europe-wide record. That still leaves Mr Menzies’ theory with a very large problem. How the heck did the ships get to the Eastern Mediterranean via the Isthmus of Suez? More

1434 Book Reviews

Publishers Weekly
“...his assumption that the Chinese fleet landed a delegation in Florence is highly speculative, and hardly substantiated by any facts”

‘London Evening Standard
1434′ is as much junk as ‘1421′

The Telegraph
“Menzies is an exponent of misinformation disguised as scholarship with the aid of footnotes, dodgy citations and even dodgier logic.”

St Petersburg Times
“There were times I thought I was eavesdropping on a dotty academic”

The Age (Melbourne, Australia)

“It's virtually unreadable, not because of the style but because of the panic induced by senseless mania”

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